Biochemical Nutrition Examination Method

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In general there are 4 examination of nutritional status, namely: anthropometry, clinical examination, examination of quantification / diet, and biochemical examination. Biochemical examination of the growth of their children not be seen directly (such as anthropometry).
Anthropometry is used to view the lack of nutritional status of the macro. Biochemical examinations were used to assess micronutrient status is more precise, objective, and only a trained person. Generally considered, namely: iron, vitamins, proteins, and minerals. Example of a sample of blood serum, urine, hair (to see Zn), stool, and tissue biopsy. Blood plasma can produce blood components (obtained from blood serum dicentrifuge be more sensitive than plasma and blood cells) which can be calculated.

Examination of iron include: Hb (knowing the status of anemia which is the WHO standard), Hct (early stage), serum iron (iron deficiency early stage, before decreasing Hb), transferrin saturation (for the transport of Fe), serum ferritin (Fe body reserves ), TIBC (used in the study), erythrocyte indices and morphology of blood (to distinguish types of anemia). Hb is a method of examination is a standard cyanmetHb Sahli and research. Deposits of iron found in the bone marrow, while decreasing the serum ferritin iron decreases.

Assessment of iodine status is most easily accomplished in the urine or with TSH (expensive). Assessment of zinc status in infants can be done on the hair. In adults, use of serum / plasma. Normally 12-17 mmol / L.

Calcium status assessment obtained from measurements of serum.

Assessment of protein status is measured in the body reserves of protein, fibrinogen levels, transport of certain nutrients (ex. Fe), Ab, the blood flow. Albumin is a protein fraction that is often assessed. Globulin associated with immune status checked. Fibrinogen for blood clotting. Decrease in serum proteins could be due to protein synthesis in the liver decreased.

Assessment of vitamin A status is required because the decline in hepatic levels decrease in plasma so that it can cause retinal dysfunction. Vitamin A status is checked in the serum (serum retinol and retinol binding protein). This examination is expensive.

Nutrition problems in Indonesia, among others: PEM, anemia, VAD, and GAKI.

Assessment of the status of PEM are biochemically: prealbumin (both at 23.8 + / - 0.9 mg / dl),

VAD status assessment using an indicator of plasma and liver vitamin A. There are government programs providing vitamin A capsules every February and August. Symptoms of subclinical VAD is an immune system disorder by increasing rates of infection (ie most ARI). Clinical symptoms of xerophtalmia (can cause cirrhosis of the conjunctiva with signs often accompanied by spotting bitot wink) so it appears the foam disappears and appears again when removed.

Anemia is considered physiological in pregnant women second trimester due to hemodilution.

GAKI status assessment is to use urine, severe in endemic areas

Examination of the nutritional status of malnourished lab can diagnose it early before clinical signs appear.