How Tsunami Can Occur?

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Tsunami can occur if an interruption that causes the movement of large amounts of water, such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslides or meteorite that fell to earth.
However, 90% a tsunami is caused by undersea earthquakes. In recording the history of some of the tsunami caused by a volcanic eruption, such as the eruption of Mount Krakatoa.

Vertical movement on the earth's crust, can lead to the ocean floor rises or falls suddenly, resulting in disruption of water balance in it. This resulted in the energy flow of sea water, which when it reached the coast into a large wave that resulted in a tsunami.

Tsunami wave speed depends on the depth of the ocean where the waves occurs, where the speed can reach hundreds of kilometers per hour. When the tsunami reaches the coast, its speed will be about 50 km / h and its energy is very damaging coastal areas in its path. In the midst of high sea waves only a few centimeters to several meters, but when it reaches shore wave height can reach tens of meters due to the buildup of the water. When the tsunami reaches the coast of the mainland will crawl away from the shoreline with a range of several hundred meters to several kilometers even.

This vertical movement can occur on the earth fault or fault. The earthquake also occurred in regions subduction, where oceanic plates under the continental plate infiltrates.

Landslides on the ocean floor and volcanic debris can also cause sea water intrusion that could generate a tsunami. The earthquake that caused the movement perpendicular to the layer of the earth. As a result, the seabed rose and fell suddenly and that the balance of sea water that was above disturbed. Similarly, cosmic objects or meteor that fell from above. If the size of the meteor is large enough or landslides, can occur megatsunami whose height reaches hundreds of meters.

The earthquake that caused the tsunami

An earthquake centered in the middle of the ocean and shallow (0-30 km)
An earthquake with a strength of at least 6.5 on the Richter Scale
An earthquake with a fault pattern up or down fault